Automotive Industry at a Glance

The World Automobile Industry is enjoying the period of relatively strong growth and profits, yet there are many regions which are under the threat of uncertainty. Carmakers look for better economies, market conditions which are ideal to have a successful stay in the industry. The automotive industry has a few big players who have marked their presence globally and General Motors, Ford, Toyota, Honda, Volkswagen, and DC are among them. It has also been suggested that automotive industry has accelerated more, after the Globalization period, due to easy accessibility & facilities among nations and mergers between giant automakers of the world.

Moreover, the advancements in industrialization led to a rise in the growth and production of the Japanese and German markets, in particular. But in 2009, the global car and automobile sales industry experienced a cogent decline which was during the global recession, as this industry is indirectly dependent on to economic shifts in employment and spending making, it vulnerable. While demand for new and used vehicles in mature markets (e.g. Japan, Western Europe and the United States) fell during the economic recession, the industry flourished in the developing economies of Brazil, Russia, India and China. Boost in global trade has enabled the growth in world commercial distribution systems, which has also inflated the global competition amongst the automobile manufacturers. Japanese automakers in particular, have initiated innovative production methods by adapting and modifying the U.S. manufacturing model, as well as utilizing the technology to elevate production and give better competition. The World Automotive industry is dynamic and capacious, accounting for approximately one in ten jobs in developed countries.

Developing countries often resort to their local automotive sector for economic growth opportunities, maybe because of the vast linkages that the auto industry of the country, has to other sectors. China is by far the largest market for sales followed by Japan, India, Indonesia, and Australia. Sales figures of 2005 to 2013 indicate that sales for vehicles in China doubled during this period, while Indonesia and India also benefited. However, there was slump in sales during this time in Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Interestingly, this year competition in the truck segment has become more intense, with the three big U.S. automakers striving for supremacy in both performance and fuel economy. The Japanese aren’t giving up, either, with both Toyota and Nissan launching new pickups in 2015.

India is the seventh largest producer of automobiles globally with almost an average production of 17.5 million vehicles with the auto industry’s contribution amounting to 7% of the total GDP. It has been estimated that, by 2020 the country will witness the sale of more than 6 million vehicles annually. India is expected to be the fourth largest automotive market by volume in the world where, two-wheeler production has grown from 8.5 Million units annually to 15.9 Million units in the last seven years and tractor sales are expected to grow at CAGR of 8-9%, in next five years, making India a potential market for the International Brands. As 100% Foreign Direct Investment is allowed in this Sector, India is expected to have a speedy expansion, to, soon to become the largest automobile Industry. While India is second largest manufacturer of two- wheelers and largest of motorcycles, it is also estimated to become the 3rd largest automobile market in the world by 2016 and will account for more than 5% of global vehicle sales. As large number of products are available to consumers across various segments, providing a large variety of vehicles of all the types, manufacturers aim towards customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Following the FDI policy, entry of a number of foreign players with reduced overall product lifecycle and quicker product launches have become a regular occurrence in the automotive industry of the country. Indian auto market is seen as the potential market which can dominate the Global auto industry in coming years. Moreover, giant dealers and manufacturers are inclining towards the country because of ease of financial norms as well as an environment so conducive to support in their projects.

With Narendra Modi’s Make in India Campaign, the automotive industry is expected to witness quite a few changes, where 800 Cr have been allocated in the Budget to promote the Energy and Hybrid Vehicles manufacturing. This move is expected to cut down the prices making these electric and hybrid vehicles cheaper and more eco-friendly. It is also expected that this move will curb down the carbon dioxide emissions to 1.5% till 2020. This program will subsidize the purchase of new hybrid and electric cars, as well as other vehicle types. It specifies incentives of up to 29,000 rupees for scooters and motorcycles, and up to 138,000 rupees for cars. Three-wheeled vehicles, light commercial vehicles, and buses will also be eligible for incentives of varying amounts as well.

The used cars sector in India has emerged as one of the major industries due to its easy accessibility and lower rate of interests. But growth in used car sales are lower than new car sales as people still prefer to purchase new cars as opposed to buying used ones. A big reason of this could be the fact that there is a reduced supply of used cars, and high prices of these used cars are pushing the consumers to opt for the low priced new cars. But despite of lower growth compared to new cars segment, used car industry has been showing a fast and steady growth. According to the industry analysts, the sales of used cars are expected to boost up in the next few years.

Till last decade, consumers were involved in unorganised sector of Used Vehicles industry, there were no organised players to assist the consumers in buying of used vehicles, and about 60% of used vehicle sales were customer to customer where there is a trust factor. The remaining sales were managed by the local dealers. But then in 2001, Maruti came with the first company of selling used cars in 2001- Maruti True Value. Despite the automobile industry witnessed slow sales numbers in the last few quarters, the used or pre-owned car segment is growing fast, and is likely to accelerate in future. In fact in the last fiscal year, more used cars were transacted, 10% more than the new ones, according to the assessment by Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. and Honda Siel Car India Ltd. With the organised players stepping in, the used cars market has benefited from fair deals, warranties, better retail network, credibility, transparency, easy availability of finances. These have all made buying a used car easy. Organised used car showrooms provide the platform to the prospective consumers to choose cars from various brands and segments. Car makers have realized the potential of used car market and are making conscious decisions to operate in the pre-owned car sector also. Besides exhibiting multiple brands, the branded used car retailers, also offer one-stop shop for all inquiries and grievances. All the major Car dealers have now established their pre-owned car segment retail showrooms, Maruti True Value, Ford Assured, Hyundai Advantage and Toyota U Trust are some of the major used car dealers.

Constant decline in fuel prices and better financial policies in the past year are the factors that are being expected to be the reasons for the number of new buyers to be increased in the market, which declined in 2013-14. But during this period, one segment that benefited from this decline was the used vehicle market, with increased awareness, financial reforms and organized firms. Most of these used cars buyers are younger people who prefer buying Pre-owned cars which come at lower prices and they get a good bargain for the same. Indian used vehicle market which is still, almost quarter of new vehicle market is growing at a rapid pace. The Pre-owned car sector is expected to grow by 15-18% in coming years.

Also with the rising in number of organized players have boosted the amount of confidence people are putting in buying a pre-owned car. These players not only offer a good line up of used cars but also offer finance & extensive vehicle check facility for 100% customer satisfaction.

The Automotive Industry is an important part of every economy as it is interrelated to growth of sectors of the economy. India as one of the progressing economy is resolving towards making its automobile industry more and more successful ultimately, linking it to overall development. With the Make in India Campaign and promotion of eco- friendly vehicles, India is expected to soon to become largest automobile industry globally. Used vehicle industry is expected huge gains with more and more people resolving to it along with the growth in the new car market. With more resources for the buyers and sellers, the automotive industry is expected to flourish meritoriously in coming future ultimately taking the country forward.

If you are not interested in canvas prints , then you have already missed a lot.

Fourth Industrial Revolution – What, Why, When & How?

Though considered as an up gradation of the third industrial revolution, this is particularly a fusion of technologies; a sound, promising, affluent, and visionary and altogether different revolution coming up soon!

The First Industrial Revolution came up to mechanize production using water and steam power, while the Second Industrial Revolution started to create mass production. Automated production using electronics and information technology was the mission of the Third One. The awaiting transformation cannot be considered as a prolongation of the Third Industrial Revolution due to its disruptive propagation, exponential evolution and a speed transformation with no historical precedent.

What is Fourth Industrial Revolution?

We are at the brink of a technological innovation; a change; a surreal transformation! According to World Economic Forum (WEF) founder and executive chairman Klaus Schwab, as a “technological revolution that will fundamentally alter the way we live, work and relate to one another”. The soon-to-happen and highly awaited Fourth Industrial Revolution combines digital, biological and physical systems and will propagate a new interaction between humans and machines. Built upon the first three Industrial Revolutions, this will prove the rapid speed of technological progress by fusing their boundaries.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) will rule the Fourth Industrial Revolution!

Technological innovation will be the best and the promising part of this phase of Industrial Revolution. Driverless cars, smart robotics, 3D printing, autonomous vehicles, nanotechnology, biotechnology, digital fabrication, synthetic biology, computation design, energy storage, quantum computing and the Internet of Things will be the milestones set in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. A WEF paper by Nicholas Davis, head of Society and Innovation says that, “reliant on the technologies and infrastructure of the third industrial revolution… , represent entirely new ways, in which technology becomes embedded within societies and even our human bodies. The new ways include genome editing, new forms of machine intelligence, and breakthrough approaches to governance that relies on cryptographic methods such as block chain”.

Why is this buzz about Fourth Industrial Revolution?

Because there are both massive opportunities and grave challenges!

Skills will rule the Labour Market!

One of the biggest and direct impacts of the Fourth Industrial Revolution will be felt by the labour market. Increasing technological invasion will lead to a large tranche of job losses, especially for low- skill jobs. There will be high demand for high-skill jobs. You will definitely smart coders for driverless cars, isn’t it? According to economists Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, there will be rise in inequality in the labour market. Larger technological automation will lead to net displacement of workers and subsequently an increase in the growth and demand of safe and rewarding jobs. Oxfam estimated that just 62 individuals own as much as the poorer half of the world’s population, and that the wealth of the poorest 50 per cent fell by 41 per cent since 2010. A report by the Swiss bank UBS said that the spread of AI and Robotics will harm economies like India and some Latin American countries by cutting their cheap labour advantage. Earlier, researchers at Oxford had estimated that 35 per cent of workers in the UK and 47 per cent in the US can lose their jobs to technology over the next two decades. Hence the labour market will go like this: “high skill-high demand-high pay” and “low skill-low demand-low pay”. In other words, talent will acquire a bigger space and will be much in demand in the labour market than the capital during the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

Improvise the Quality of Living

Technology has improvised the quality of life for populations since its inception. Availability of new products, easier accessibility to market, increased efficiency and pleasure of personal lives and an affordable digital world awaits ahead. Starting from high end crucial daily requirements like making a transaction, buying a product till casual personal needs like listening to music or watching a movie; will be done remotely and easily. The Fourth Industrial Revolution will indeed result in a qualitative transformation in the life of people.

Tremendous Gain in Efficiency and Productivity

Needless to say that automation and technological innovation will cause a miracle in terms of efficiency and productivity. Long term gains are assured. Drop in the transportation and communication costs, increased effectiveness of logistics and global supply chains and reduced cost of trade will gear up the economic growth as well propel new markets to open up. It is easier to run trade with fewer workers today than it was half a quarter of a century ago. A company can earn a good money with a smart app with minimum requirement of capital leave alone the storage, logistics and transportation charges. Explaining in terms of economics jargon, marginal costs per unit of output will tend to zero and Return-of-Investment will be on a higher side; abruptly higher!

Impact on Business World; Can be a reliable promise as well as a fatal peril!

The Fourth Industrial Revolution will however mark a major impact on the business world. Development and prosperity will rest on four platforms: customer expectations, on product enhancement, on collaborative innovation, and on organizational forms. Customers will form the epicentre of the business. Increased digital transparency in the business sector will lead to a major change in the world of customer experiences, data-based services, and asset performance. The rise of new global niches and business models will definitely need a makeover and re-touch of the existing talent, culture, and organizational forms. Business leaders need to understand their changing environment, challenge the assumptions of their operating teams, and relentlessly and continuously innovate to be in the changing league.

Grave Challenge Ahead for Governments

What will happen if citizens voice their opinions and circumvent the work of the government? A serious approach towards public engagement and policy making should be started! And this is what is going to happen very soon in the age of Fourth Industrial Revolution. Rapid digitilization will enable the citizens to opine more about the work of the Government subsequently putting more pressure on the latter due to redistribution and decentralization of power. Agile governance is the need of the hour. To do so, governments and regulatory agencies will need to collaborate closely with business and civil society. Technology can increase the risk of new fears related to warfare at the same time it will also create the potential to reduce the scale or impact of violence, through the development of new modes of protection, for example, or greater precision in targeting.

Female mass will have a prominent part in this revolution

Negative effect on labour market can have a disproportionately negative impact on women than men. However with increasing women talent pool, the proportion of women expected to progress to medium and senior roles by 2020 is set to rise by nearly 10%. Job loss due to automation of technology, will affect women and men relatively equally. However, the fact that, women make up a smaller share of the workforce means that today’s economic gender gap may widen even further. According to The Industry Gender Gap Report, “The Media, Entertainment and Information sector is the only one that will see a reduction in the number of women in the next five years, with female composition expected to drop across all job levels, from 47% to 46%. However even here, women can expect to see more opportunity, with the proportion of women in mid-level and senior-level positions expected to grow from 25% in each today to 32% and 33% respectively”.

When will be the onset of the Fourth Industrial Revolution?

Resting upon the Third Industrial Revolution, the fourth is waiting for a major disruptor to mark its inception. A lot of instabilities and unpredictability are associated with the onset of this new digital revolution. A possible change in the Smartphone industry or just any new technological innovation that will wipe down the current technical aspects will mark the beginning of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. An invention that will “robotize” the humanity will set the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

How will the Fourth Industrial Revolution affect India?

  • It will affect the cheap and unskilled labour market of India. According to a UBS report, “Automation will continue to put downward pressure on the wages of the low skilled and is starting to impinge on the employment prospects of middle-skilled workers. By contrast, the potential returns to highly skilled and more adaptable workers are increasing.”
  • There will be a need to upgrade the skills and invest heavily in skilling initiatives. “The greatest disruption, however, could be experienced by workers who have so far felt immune to robotic competition, namely those in middle­-skill professions,” the UBS report says.
  • Indian governance will face a major challenge to work on dynamic real time data. However there will be an increase in transparency especially in notoriously opaque sectors like real estate. There will be use of eWallets than cash.
  • Induction of 4G connectivity will enable Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) for the small town and village youths and help merchandising the agricultural products in the right price.
  • There can be a potential side effect of increased connectivity as well. “Connectivity increases the risks posed by cyber threats and the magnitude of these threats rises further as a result of networks becoming more connected. Extreme connectivity also fosters geopolitical tensions, as it increases the ability of diverse groups to organise and protest,” noted the UBS.
  • Age of 3D printing will increase India’s investment in space research. 3D printing can help to build space satellites easily.
  • A progressive tax regime will render equity.

Fertilizer Production Displays Adverse Effects On Phosphate Industry Workers

Fortunately for the United States, Central Florida is home to the largest known phosphate reserves in the world. Phosphate and its derivatives are essential to continuing life on Earth, based on phosphorus and related nutrients from nitrogen. It is safe to say, phosphate reserves located in the United States are critical to the economy and national security concerns as well.

Both the U.S. economy and safety depend on phosphate reserves in the U.S. and around the world. The United States is known to have over seventy percent of the world’s phosphate reserves. Florida reserves are over ninety percent of phosphate reserves found in the U.S. Basically; Central Florida is ground zero for phosphate mega-mining. Phosphate is needed for one’s health, but phosphate mining and fertilizer production are linked to severe illnesses and even death.

Historically, Florida’s phosphate industry has little if any oversight from state and federal level officials. Until recently, industry practices were overlooked or regarded as benign to Florida’s environmental health issues. Interestingly, the industry today is alleged to be responsible for the greatest threat to Florida’s environment, based on comments from the Department of Environmental Protection.

Phosphate companies have stripped mined central Florida for over 60 years which benefits local economies located near one of the many phosphate mining plants. The industry in central Florida employs hundreds of workers and seems to offer stability for one’s livelihood. From the outside looking in, it appears industry workers have employment longevity to support a comfortable lifestyle. Industry employs many good people and their jobs can be dirty, dusty, smelly, hazardous, and back breaking as well.

Florida’s phosphate industry workers seem to have stable incomes and can afford health, dental, and life insurance policies for themselves and their families. Now that health care is affordable, industry workers pay their premiums and begin seeing their doctors for illnesses, checkups, and prescription medicines. Phosphate mining workers now have medical histories and can track their health problems over time, in some cases, years of employment with the industry.

One may expect healthy industry workers due to continuous health care over time. However, statistically, research shows industry employees have higher than average adverse health effects, reportedly from exposure to phosphate mining and the production of fertilizers. The primary illnesses with industry workers are respiratory and esophageal health related. (1)

Health Threats To Phosphate Industry Workers Documented

Research results completed in the late 1980’s, statistically show increased adverse effects on industry workers including higher incidences of respiratory illnesses such as lung cancer and cancers related to the esophagus. Data indicates the longer one works for the phosphate industry; the greater one’s risk to become ill due to respiratory, esophageal, and radiation poisoning issues. This is called a “dose-response relationship” (2). Historically; the mortality rate for phosphate industry workers is much higher than Florida’s state average mortality rate for similar illnesses and ages. The research also considers similar habits such as smoking or chewing tobacco. The illnesses discussed here are related to respiratory, throat, and radiation exposure as well. (1) The research reflects phosphate industry workers employed for longer than eleven months.

Research indicates employees directly exposed to the process of producing fertilizer from phosphate are the industry workers most likely to display adverse effects concerning respiratory illnesses and diseases related to alpha and gamma radiation emissions. The emissions are based on uranium and radium existing in fertilizer production waste by-products. Research displays the further away one’s job is from the production of fertilizer; the less likely one will contract related illnesses. The statistics show a greater number of illnesses directly linked by one’s proximity to the manufacture of fertilizer from phosphate.

Florida’s phosphate industry offers employment stability for local economies adjacent to mining facilities. However, phosphate industry employees may be at risk for serious respiratory and esophageal illnesses due to their proximity to the production of fertilizer.

The Textile Industry – Part II

A brief outlook on The Indian textile industry

At a broader level Indian Textile Industry can be divided into two categories: Organized and Unorganized.

Despite India being an emerging economy, the Indian Textile Industry is largely unorganized and still relies largely on traditional means in cloth manufacturing and is also highly labor intensive in nature. The clothes are produced with the help of hands via weaving and spinning methods.

The remaining half of the industry is very much organized with high importance endowed on capital intensive production processes. The sector depends on sophisticated mills by way of which technologically superior machines are utilized for mass production of textile products.

Further classification of Indian Textile Industry

• Textile industry employing fiber derived from man made means or natural cotton.
• Yarn industry using fiber or filament, similar to the man made variety
• Textile industry centered on production of wool, its offshoots and woolen products.
• Textile industry based on production and processing of Jute.
• Textile industry centered on mass production of natural silk and final products from silk
• Handloom Industry
• Handicrafts industry which is primarily unorganized in nature

The textile industry employing fiber derived from man made means or natural cotton.

This sector is looked upon as the largest producer of textile products. In terms of employment opportunities, the sector employs maximum number of people in the entire industry which is said to be around a mind-boggling one million workers. According to the latest estimates by Ministry of Textiles, the total number of mills in this particular sector stood at 1818 in number. The total capacity of all these mills total to

* 35.37 million spindles and * 0.45 million rotors In between April -December 2009, the production of cloth made from man-made fibre accelerated by 21.3 percent.

Spun Yarn industry can further be segregated into two sub-sectors:-

• Cotton Yarn Manufacturing industry: The production is directly related to the production of cotton on year-on-year basis, whose production in turn largely depends on the vagaries of nature. Therefore it is widely observed that the rate of production in this sector, more often than not fluctuates.

• Non cotton yarn producing industry

The industry is growing at an unprecedented speed for the rate of production in this sector has accelerated on a consistent basis. The period between 1999 and 2005, the capacity of this sector increased between 80 and 93 percent.

Organized sector is going through a rough patch and the reason cited being the tweaking of the structural set-up. Of late the weaving sector has been separated from the spinning sector causing the rise of powerlooms of decentralized nature. In the recent years the production capacity of the organized sector plummeted by 0.54 lakh between March 2000 and January 2007.

Nonetheless, the organized sector seems to be fairing better than unorganized one with a yearly growth rate of almost 5.4 percent.

Yarn industry utilizing fiber or filament can be divided into two divisions:-

• Industry type consisting production of cellulosic fibers or filaments
• Industry type consisting production of non-cellulosic fibers or filaments

Textile industry centered on production of wool, its offshoots and woolen products.

• Its export oriented
• Production base is mainly located in the rural areas
• Both organized as well as non-organized units dominate this sector.

India’s contributes nearly 1.8 percent of total production of wool in the world. This sector is known for its high employment generation capacity. By 2006, twenty seven lakh workers were working in this sector. At a broader level, the total raw wool production in India can be segregated into three major grades:-

• Carpet Grade comprising 85% of the total raw wool production
• Coarse Grade comprising 10% of the total raw wool production
• Apparel Grade comprising 5% of the total raw wool production

Nonetheless, it has been found that the demand for raw wool in India is more than the output; hence large part of the local demand is met through import of raw wool. Wool is said to be the only natural fibre in which the country has not yet achieved self-sufficiency.

The sector also attracts foreign exchange earning from export of woolen products.

At present there are 958 woolen units in the country, the majority of which fall in the small scale sector

Some of the exclusive items used in the production of wool fiber in India include: Pasmina and Angora.

Textile industry based on the production and processing of Jute.

Significant part of Eastern India is into production and processing of Jute, West Bengal in particular. Nearly 4 million farm families depend on it. The industry provides direct employment opportunities to 2.6 lakh industrial workers and another 1.4 lakh people in the allied sectors. In the world market, the contribution of this industry is noteworthy. The export earnings from the sector stand at Rs.1200 crore. In export of final jute products, India bags second position in the entire world. Besides, revenue also comes from government and private orders for packaging purposes.

The special features of Jute:-

• Natural Fiber
• Biodegradable product
• The fibers can be renewed after use
• Eco-friendly in nature

In India, Raw Jute is manufactured in the following states:-

• West Bengal
• Assam
• Bihar
• Andhra Pradesh
• Meghalaya
• Orissa
• Tripura

The total production of raw jute in India is almost 90 to 100 lakh bales. The industry gets good support from the government. The crucial support comes in the form of Minimum Support Price. The support price increased from Rs.910 to Rs.1000

Textile industry centered on mass production of natural silk and final products from silk

India is leading producer of silk in the world, second largest producer to be precise. Of the four varieties produced, Mulberry accounts for 88.7 percent, Eri account for 8.4 percent, Tasar 3.8 and Muga silk 0.6 percent. Its contribution to the total world production of silk is about 18 percent.

The rearing and breeding of silk worms as well as the production of raw silk are known as Sericulture. The industry is considered as one of the top cottage industries in India. Over fifty thousand villagers are into silk production. One of the most remarkable aspects of this industry is its labor -intensiveness.

The different people involved in Sericulture include:-

• The workers who produce silkworm seeds
• Farmers who rear the silkworms
• Workers who are into reeling
• Workers who are into twisting the silk
• Workers who weave the silk
• Workers who spin of silk waste
• Dealers of Silk

The significance of Silk Industry can be outlined as follows:-

• Fewer Investments required.
• Return on investment quite high
• Nearly 6 million people employed in this industry.

In 2004-05, the amount of silk produced stood at sixteen thousand and five hundred metric tones which scaled up to seventeen thousand and three hundred five metric tones during 2005-06. The foreign exchange earned by the industry in 2005-06 was Rs.3158.16 crore.

The silk export items of India include:-

• Fabrics
• Waste of silk
• Carpets made up of silk

Handloom Industry

Handloom industry occupies second position in terms of livelihood after agriculture. Over the years, this sector’s production has increased

Disadvantages linked to Handloom Industry in India

• Technology is outdated
• Production system not organized
• The turnaround is relatively low
• Working capital for this industry is pretty low
• Marketing aspects is almost zero
• Innovation is significantly low.

Handicraft industry:

Handicraft industry is one of the most traditional industries in India.

Special features of this industry include:

• Capital requirement is reasonably low
• Provides employment opportunities to large number of people.
• Most of the handicraft items are exported; thereby help earn foreign exchange for the artisans and the country.

Nearly 63.81 lakh people were employed by this sector.

The total number of people employed in this industry amounts to 63.81 lakhs.

Industrial Shelving Systems Used By A Variety of Industries

Industrial shelving isn’t just for large warehouses. It is common to find roll-out shelving systems in a large variety of industries including aerospace, industrial manufacturing, automobile manufacturing, medical laboratories, packaged goods manufacturing, oil and gas production and the military. Driven by a need to increase operational efficiency and reduce costs through space savings, these industries and many more depend on industrial shelving systems.

The aerospace industry relies on high quality industrial shelving systems to store large and heavy engine components. Specialized roll-out also play a key role in protecting important avionics because they can be customized to include additional protections for sensitive parts. Security is vital when dealing with aircraft parts so many airline suppliers use industrial that feature 12 gauge steel sides, back and doors and locking mechanisms for additional security.

Industrial manufacturing companies use industrial to maximize storage and security of materials. Industrial roll-out shelving racks provide ease of use and ergonomic access to all items on a shelf. Many companies choose customized units to maximize valuable plant space. Racks can be designed with load capacities up to 40,000 pounds per shelf for maximum flexibility. Companies also appreciate the automatic safety interlock feature installed on better systems which prevents more than one shelf from being rolled out simultaneously.

In the automotive industry major automobile companies and part manufacturers use a multitude of shelving systems. Shelving systems are used for tool cribs, work cells, assembly lines and of course general storage. Businesses in this automotive industry customize shelf sizes and cradling in order to maximize storage space and more importantly speed of assembly. Whether operating an old plant or a new facility, custom are recommended to drive maximum manufacturing efficiency and employee safety.

Medical laboratories frequently utilize roll-out to enhance their operations. Many specify custom tops and shelf decks that are necessary to operate in the medical, disposable and implantable device markets. Surfaces designed for high heat, chemicals and clean room environments are available with custom roll-out shelving racks and cabinets. Roll-out shelving racks are perfect for quick and easy access to equipment and finished goods. The medical industry also utilizes lockable for security and control.

Many packaged goods manufacturing companies find that industrial roll-out are excellent for equipment and tooling storage near production lines. Just like other industries, these manufacturing companies typically customize rack systems to maximize available space and minimize production change over time. Roll-out shelving cabinets come equipped with sides, a back, and lockable doors for equipment security.

The military uses roll-out shelving for storing and handling munitions as well as other equipment. Several branches specify systems with built in fork lift pockets so entire racks can quickly be relocated and even transported into theaters of operation. The military also uses for material handling and maintenance processes. Everyone from the Air Force to the Navy relies on industrial shelving solutions.

In closing, you can easily see the popularity and necessity of industrial roll-out shelving for a myriad of industries. Increasing efficiency, driving cost reductions through space savings and improving employee ergonomics are critical in competing effectively in today’s global economy and are made possible through industrial shelving systems. Many industries beyond the ones mentioned in this article depend on industrial roll-out shelving to improve their operational efficiency and thus maximize profits.

Industrialization and Economic Development

Industrialization is the process of manufacturing consumer goods and capital goods and of creating social overhead capital in order to provide goods and services to both individuals and businesses. As such industrialization plays a major role in the economic development of LDCs (Less Developed Country).

Industrialization is a pre-requisite for economic development as the history of advanced countries shows. For development, the share of the industrial sector should rise and that of the agricultural sector decline. This is only possible through a policy of deliberate industrialization. As a result, the benefits of industrialization will “trickle down” to the other sectors of the economy in the form of the development of agricultural and service sectors leading to the rise in employment, output and income.

In overpopulated LDCs there is overcrowding on the land, holdings are subdivided and fragmented, and farmers practice traditional agriculture. For rapid development, LDC’s cannot afford to wait for changes in farm practices to take place. Therefore. LDCs must begin with industrial development to supply fertilizers, farm machinery and other inputs so as to increase efficiency on the farm. Again, industrialization is necessary in order to provide employment to the underemployed and unemployed in the agricultural sector. In overpopulated LDCs, large number of people are underemployed or disguised unemployed whose marginal product is zero or negligible. They can be transferred from agriculture to industry with little or no loss in agricultural output. Since the marginal product of labor is higher in industry than in agriculture, transferring such workers to the industrial sector will raise aggregate output. Thus overpopulated LDCs have no choice but to industrialize.

Industrialization is also essential in LDCs because it brings increasing returns and economies of scale while agriculture does not. “These economies reside in training, stimulating communication, interaction within industry (inter-sectoral linkages), demonstration effects in production and consumption, and so on. Rural society tends to be stagnant, urban society dynamic. Since industrialization brings urbanization, it is superior to the stimulation of agriculture.”

Further the LDCs need industrialization to free themselves from the adverse effects of fluctuations in the prices of primary products and deterioration in their terms of trade. Such countries mainly export primary products and import manufactured goods. The prices of primary products have been falling or remaining stable due to protectionist policies of advanced countries, while the prices of manufactures have been rising. This has led to deterioration in the terms of trade of the LDCs. For economic development, such countries must shake off their dependence on primary product. They should adopt import substituting and export-oriented industrialization.

The case for industrialization in the LDCs also rests on the psychological boost which such a polio provides in their citizens in marching towards modernization. Industrialization is viewed as a mater of pride by every LDC, for it implies using the new technology, new and diverse skills, larger enterprises and more large cities. Moreover incomes rise rapidly in the industrial sector which are saved and invested for creating more demand for goods and services. Since industrialization is followed by urbanization, employment opportunities and incomes increase.

People enjoy the fruits of modernization in the form of a variety of goods and services available in urban centers due to industrialization. These also affect the rural sector through the demonstration effect. Thus industrialization tends to raise the living standards and promotes social welfare.

Finally, industrialization brings social transformation, social equality, more equitable distribution of income and balanced regional development in the process of economic development. The policy of industrialization followed by the LDCs in the early phase of their development has not brought the expected economic and social benefits. It has failed to reduce in equalities of income and wealth, unemployment, and regional imbalances. Even the pace of development has been uneven with the neglect of the growth of other sectors.

Moreover, industrialization has created such serious problems as: (1) rural stagnation, (2) the mushrooming growth of the urban underclass, (3) education poorly geared to the development needs, (4) organizational power failures in government bureaucracies, and (5) excessively high rates of growth of the population and the labor force. Therefore, economists have veered round to the view that there is no basis for the argument that development should be launched with industrialization. Rather, the process of development should be interwoven with the harmonious growth of agriculture and industry. In fact, in most LDCs successful industrialization has been supported by sustained agricultural development.

Ask Your Local Travel Guru: What’s New on the Travel Industry Wire?

As a travel guru for many years now, I have seen the travel industry wire adapt in so many ways. As you already know, we now live in a world with instant and infinite amounts of information, right at our fingertips. Like everything else, the travel industry has adapted, grown and cultivated a new identity with our present day world of information. Until beaches start disappearing and people can be teleported across continents, there will ALWAYS be the want and need to visit our regular and new destinations.

The travel industry plays a substantial role in the global economy. During 2015, the travel industry wire forecasts global GDP to grow by 3.7% and employment by 2.6%. This demonstrates the sector’s enduring ability to generate economic growth and create jobs at a faster rate than the global economy, which is due to grow by 2.9% in 2015. By the end of 2015, the Travel & Tourism sector will contribute US$7,860 billion, 10% of global GDP, once all direct, indirect and induced impacts are taken into account. The sector will account for 284 million jobs, 9.5% of total employment, or one in eleven of all jobs on the planet. By 2025, the global travel & tourism sector is projected to contribute 357 million jobs and generate $11.4 Trillion dollars. Ask your favorite travel guru and he will show you the various components all contributing to these massive amounts. Let’s check out what the travel industry wire says:

Hotel Industry

Among all the sub sectors of the travel & tourism industry, Hotels is one of the biggest fragments. The travel industry wire explains that hotels generated a global of $457 billion dollars in 2014. Your travel guru has most likely coordinated a recent trip within the Intercontinental Hotels Group. The company contributed the highest revenues, earning $22.8 billion dollars. In the United States alone, the total revenue within the hotel industry climbed to $163 billion dollars. The majority of tourists visiting the United States of America (65.1%) choose to stay in a hotel, where the average daily is a healthy $121.30.

Aviation industry

Although the major corporations, leading sector, seem to always changing names and planes, the industry cultivated a whopping $783 billion US dollars in 2014. Your travel guru may have whispered about some of the airlines not performing, but the industry continues to grow at rate of 7.4% every year. The travel industry wire indicates that Europeans, Americans, Chinese & Brazilians combine for the highest market contributors.

Cruise Industry

Cruises have steadily become a popular choice of travel the past few years. These are an easy sell for your local travel guru… The luxurious ocean liners, offering food, fun & music for the entire family have created a loyal gathering that continues to grow. Due to the growth rate of 6.55% every year, Cruise lines have postured their company growth strategies, by building larger capacity ships, ship diversification, more local ports and more destinations. The travel industry wire indicates that the average cruise traveler spends approximately $1728.00 every year, with over 22 million people jumping on the floating palace. The cruise industry contributes about $39.6 billion dollars in 2014, and is poised for a solid 6-7% increase.

Online Travel Market

Any travel guru, coupled with the travel industry wire statistics, will tell you that the online travel industry has EXPLODED over the past 5 years and will only continue to skyrocket. As more and more people use smartphones and as these smartphones continue to develop into personal super computers, the more information we have, the more we want. Online travel revenue reached $340 billion dollars back in 2011, worldwide and 39% consisted of American bookings. Obviously, the deluge of data & information has contributed to the online travel industry, but hotels and hotel broker websites have been the main proponents to this boom. As everything turns to online information, bookings, etc… the travel agencies, travel gurus and everyone associated with the industry has jumped in. Rarely do you see a corporation dependent on the travel & tourism industry, that hasn’t adapted to the online market.

The travel & tourism industry is an enormous portion of the global economy and will only continue absorb market share. The travel industry wire explains that the sectors and their respective technologies are developing at a rapid rate, procuring the consumer process into a much easier-and faster encounter. Just ask your favorite travel guru.

UAE Military/Civilian Industrial Base Strategy

Building the strength of the internal Industrial Base capabilities and capacity to meet future Security and Economic needs of the UAE

UAE Industrial Base Strategy

This document is conceptual in its nature, and outlines the need to provide a more robust industrial base within the UAE based on the current political, geographical, military and economic environments that exist. Also, the need to provide the current and future armed forces with the necessary materials and systems that could be produced within the UAE, to ensure the internal and external security of the UAE. The general premise is to create the conditions, the policies, the procedures, and the national will; to establish an internal industrial base over time to produce the necessary military major end items, equipment and sustainment materials necessary to maintain a viable armed force.

General Analysis:
This document articulates the overall need, desire, rationale, as well as some of the major tasks that would be required in order to bring this type of a concept to fruition. The document also articulates the complexities of the tasks required to bring the current industrial base to the level of performance in which it could provide the armed forces the necessary materials and equipment to ensure its own security, without relying upon manufacturers and the industrial base of other nations. Additionally, it addresses the massive integration strategies required to connect the many parts and sectors of the UAE Society, to include; government ruling bodies and governmental agencies, the armed forces, industries, the educational systems, industry associations, along with global, and multinational industries, as well as critical infrastructure requirements.

Adopting a national strategy this complex in its nature, and with the extended timeline that would be required, to realize the actual institutionalization of an industrial base capability and capacity for producing the right types and right quantities of military equipment to ensure National Security would require at a minimum:

• Long term vision and political will
• Long-term economic commitment
• Tenacious follow through over many years
• Superior organization and management
• International staff of experts to negotiate and facilitate
• And single agency control at the highest levels of the UAE government

This single agency would have to have complete control over the planning, execution, integration, coordination, risk management and final decision authority for all matters involving the industrial base; as well as access to the highest levels of government, to ensure the continuity with the political will and the economic realities, upon which key industrial base decisions must be based. Such as the capitalization of key industrial base facilities, whether or not it is a joint use facility producing both civilian and military items, does it have an export capability and is there a world or regional market share that can be penetrated; along with the competition analysis required to penetrate world markets to ensure the economic success of industrial base ventures.

Major success factors and considerations:

In order to accomplish a program of this magnitude, would require integral planning and the integration of a rational logical road-map that would link the concepts and requirements to desired outcomes. The use of a logic pyramid represents an example of using the elements provided.

This pyramid represents the key alignment of goals, objectives, strategy and so forth necessary to ensure success, and represents a logical linkage between each of the elements which provides continuity to the strategy. For example, the overall goal is to provide UAE the means necessary to ensure its internal security, without relying heavily on others. In order for this to be accomplished there are two primary objectives which will need to be fulfilled. First, a unified industrial base, a base within the UAE that is synchronized and targeted to provide both in peace and in conflict the necessary equipment to sustain the armed forces in meeting their military missions; while at the same time being able to produce goods and services that are marketable on the world market. Second, is self-sufficiency, this is having the necessary raw materials, labor, manufacturing facilities, management and planning, and engineering assets within the country, and committed to the country, to support the industrial base and its efforts to support both its civil and military requirements.

In order to have both a unified industrial base and self-sufficiency, there must be some strategies in place to facilitate both those ends. The strategies include national partnerships; these are key partnerships with nations and companies willing to partner to build the internal capability of the UAE and to maintain that base. These partnerships could include key elements of technology transfer, and setting up of joint ventures with the goal of institutionalizing the technology and manufacturing processes necessary for the growth of the industrial base. Additionally, we add the concept of self-development where the expertise gain by the UAE educational systems, entrepreneurial systems and industrial innovation come together to produce new ideas, factories, and production that support and sustained the targeted industrial base.

As the strategies are put in place, there are number of tactics, that we can use to facilitate and enhance the effectiveness of the strategies. These tactics may include strategic alignments within the industrial base and within the partner base. This type of integration provides synergy of effort and better outcomes that reduce prices thereby, creating efficiencies and effectiveness within the industrial base. Other tactics involve process standardization and variance control thereby, allowing the manufacturing processes to be predictable and increasing quality levels which make the product more marketable upon the world markets, creating higher market share, and greater returns on investments. Additionally, encouraging increase investments in the UAE industrial base, which will have the effect of stabilizing the industrial base and the economy, while at the same time increasing capacity.

Throughout the design and buildup of the industrial base there must be a standard applied to all the engineering efforts to ensure stability and consistency not only of the individual production elements, but also the integration of the industry’s elements into one synergistic effort. For this logic pyramid, we have used the standard engineering concepts that also apply to processes and design that would directly affect the industrial base they are:

• Simplification: looks to simplify processes, designs, and manufacturing layouts and routines to maximize efficiencies and to create Lean Manufacturing.

• Standardization: allows the overall process and initiative to apply economies by doing like things the same way. This reduces the time it takes to standup new or like process using the same plans, tools, and processes. Standardization also allows the application of statistical methods, like six sigma, which increase quality, reduces waste, and increases profits.

• Integration: brings synergies to the industrial base through the combination of like industries, like processes, and in the reduction of production steps which eliminates opportunities for error within the manufacturing processes. Reduced variation increases reliability which reduces costs.

• Elimination: of non-value-added steps within the industrial base or within manufacturing processes. Reduction in process steps reduces the risk and opportunities for errors.

• Automation: creating manufacturing and industrial base reliance by removing the “man in the loop” manufacturing; by automating those processes and steps within the manufacturing and industrial base processes. Automation enhances simplification and standardization as well as integration. All of which increases reliability and reduces costs

In order to ensure smart application of any initiative within the industrial base, a standardize methodology needs to be established to provide structure to the overall process. One such methodology is based on four steps which are; design, deploy, operate, and sustain. This structure is outlined more fully, and discussed in more detail later in this paper.

In addition to a structure methodology, there has to be a consistent management method which has as a minimum the ability to design, plan, control, and evaluate the total industrial base initiative its direction and its effectiveness. At a minimum, their needs to be portfolio and pipeline management, resource management and program/ project control.

A national industrial base strategy that is this large and complex, needs to be deeply rooted in the political base of the UAE, to have any hope of a measure of success that will provide the return on investment (ROI) and then return on equity (ROE) that is expected or required. Additionally, financial and economic measures such as capital budgeting techniques, and risks/return tradeoffs, along with operating leverage considerations, will need to deployed and used within the overall UAE governmental budgeting process, as well as commercial financial markets.

The government will also need to regulate, control, and comply with international law in regards to arms/military manufacturing and sales; as well as international treaties dealing in arms trafficking and weapons of mass destruction (WMD’s).

The economic commitment that will be required by the nation to ensure effective implementation of a military/civilian industrial base complex within the UAE will be substantial and long-term. To achieve the overall stated goal of UAE Security through an internal unified industrial base with self-sufficiency in the production of the goods and services to support the Armed Forces; the UAE commitment to a multi-generational time frame initiative is not only imperative, but paramount.

A Major factor in the success of such a large national strategic initiative, will be the management and control structure that is in place to ensure completeness and correctness of all the efforts related to this endeavor. The management cycle briefly outlined here, gives a cursory view of just some of the major elements that would be required to establish, manage and execute a national strategy to integrate military production into the industrial base. This management cycle consists of six major steps, all of which must be accomplished if effective and efficient management is to take place. Each step lays the foundation for the succeeding steps, which provides a mechanism for the overall success. A note should be made here, that the process is only as good as the people who are involved in the process, and for a national strategic initiative as important as a modernization of the industrial base highly qualified and dedicated leadership and management that have a long-term commitment and a vision of success will be required.

The first step, is to establish the management and cultural environment necessary to set the groundwork for the strategic initiative. This step is realized at the highest levels of the UAE Government, with key political and economic leaders creating a clear vision and framework necessary to establish a key strategic initiative to move the industrial base from its current state to the desired future state. Key activities would include complete and comprehensive assessment of current UAE industrial base and its capabilities and capacities. Additionally, assessment in the future needs must be accomplished which establishes the current and future threat conditions and the capabilities that are required to meet those threats and have those requirements translated into weapons and systems that need to be produced by the industrial base. These assessments are used to establish a clear vision of the road ahead, and the assignment of missions and strategies as well as goals, tasks, and objectives necessary to achieve the desired outcomes and changes in the industrial base.

Additionally, at this time and IO campaign must be initiated stating the need for change and soliciting executive financial sector and management support for the strategic initiative, to include resource allocation to initiate the perceived strategic effort and to execute the macro planning process, and the establishment of the agency and its key leadership. Once this is been completed, and the major program strategy has been mapped, to include a clear critical path established with milestones and timelines assigned, we are ready to proceed to step two.

The second step, is the establishment of a methodology and the support systems required to start implementation of the national strategy. Key elements include: the writing of policies, the establishment of communications and tracking systems, and the setting of standards. This requires assembling the right team of people, with the right training, and experience, to organize and execute the vision and missions previously developed. The effort needs to fill out the organization in its key leadership positions that will be responsible for the implementation of the strategy. At this time it is essential as well, to assigned equipment and systems that will be used in the implementation. It is paramount to ensure that key systems and equipment necessary for the management, information flow, and data management, be online and available to ensure orderly, and timely flow, of information, data, and communications. A key element will be changes in the educational systems at the elementary, secondary, and university level in such programs as finance, business, management, and engineering, that will produce than next generation of technical and management experts to continue the implementation throughout the years to come. A key component will also be the establishment of curriculum and an educational system that focuses on producing experts in acquisition, procurement and life-cycle modeling specifically to military weapons and systems. They will provide the backbone for military acquisition management system and the interface to the national industrial base. Acquisition and procurement will provide a critical link in the strategic initiative and will require a full review and realignment as well as integration into a material acquisition management program which will provide for and control, management, education, and a full life cycle for items that the industrial base will produce. In order to be successful it shall require detailed coordination and input from many sectors of the UAE governmental and industrial complex.

Step three, moves to the management of work, and the establishment of the executive board’s and sector advisory boards from the different government agencies and industry associations necessary to interface with the initiative. The key element is also the portfolio steering group or committee which is the deciding body that determines which applications, weapons, and systems, that should be integrated into the program of the strategic industrial base and gives authority for program start-up. An additional important part of step three is pipeline control. This pipeline management is the controlling of, the when and where, programs and projects enter into the national industrial base strategy, to ensure that the effort is best aligned with like products or services, the current manufacturing capability and capacity, and have the best mix of partnering, joint ventures, financial and political support, marketing analysis and complete life-cycle management plans.

Portfolio in pipeline management provides the apex in the management of all aspects of a critical industrial base infrastructure. It is through the portfolio and pipeline that the that the executive and management team can best utilize and implement the resources available to the UAE at any particular point in time to maximize output, investments, financial control and planning factors, as well as maximizing the synergies of multiple industrial complexes, crossing multiple sectors over extended periods of time. Its goal is simple, to put the right products, at the right places, in the right industries, of the right time, to avoid duplication, rework, and increases in cycle time necessary to bring production capability and capacity online.

Step four, is the execution of plans created by the programs and projects, as well as the integration of the pipeline control plans into implementation action, which include the management systems, business practices and processes, all the tools, techniques, training, automated operation, and expert systems required as well as a formal reporting structure to include metrics. Step four represents the major execution of work, along with its daily management metrics, performance standards, and the Information Data Systems, required to ensure effectiveness and efficiency in the execution of the plans, developed through the portfolio stirring group the pipeline management efforts. This requires detailed planning, and cross coordination to ensure multiple business sectors, along with multiple industry sectors and governmental agencies is synchronized and coordinated. This will rely on a complex internal information technology network in which all key players have visibility over, and an understanding of the entire strategy in its current and future implementation status, thereby providing real time decision ability to the agency and key leaders and management.

Step five, is the evaluation of performance, which includes a review of the applied metrics for each of the programs and projects, the effectiveness of the pipeline integration, the overall effectiveness of the portfolio in meeting the national security requirements; and the continuing review of best practices, available to ensure effectiveness and inefficiencies within the national strategy. This is a key step in ensuring and information and data is available in real time to the national leadership, as well as the program leadership detailing overall movement a shun progress divides a window of constant review and approval of the intended portfolio and pipeline decisions as well as their effectiveness during a replication. It allows for course correction in continuous review, and the possible elimination of programs which are not meeting the potentials as initially assessed or to modify and redirect, modernize and update as the circumstances require. This provides leadership at all levels and effective way of managing to ensure that products and services currently underway are being considered and implemented and continually reviewed, for relevancy appropriateness and meeting the criteria of cost, quality, and delivery.

Step six, is the feedback loop which consists of all the reporting and briefings to the national leadership, shareholders and partners, and the review and refinement of the overall strategic initiative and its movement toward the assigned vision, mission, and objectives. This step provides a critical link between all the steps of the process, and provides for a continuous improvement path to ensure that all enterprise elements remain focused on the vision and the national will. Step six provides a quality control loop that ensures the other five steps are contributing to the overall process. It provides for the fine tuning of the process and systems to management of all aspects of work and provides the lessons learned vehicle to ensure that all involved in the overall strategic process understand where the process needs to be improved to create the desired efficiencies.

Step six, also provides a validation for the systems information and data appropriateness and usefulness to the program in providing the information necessary for effective management and control. This results in the smart upgrades and security necessary to ensure that the information systems applied to the strategic initiative remain secure while providing the information and data necessary for the daily decision making process.

For each of the steps and all of the sub-steps as outlined in the Management Cycle, as well as the processes and systems, it requires a life-cycle methodology to control and execute all of the micro parts of the management steps for risk management and to ensure completeness. The four key stages or elements of this life cycle method include:

• Design
• Deploy
• Operate
• Sustain

Enablers to these four main operating spheres of influence include: planning, technical solutions, education and metrics.
The application of each of the steps of the life-cycle method helps ensure, that the product, service, systems, or application is sufficient, and has the utility required, in meeting whatever performance objectives assigned.

Linking all the steps together into one industrial base, is a strategic formation template. This template, is used to link the strategic formation with a logic Pyramid which represents all of the major steps and considerations necessary for completion, and provides the macro activities that needs to be considered. This is linked to the management cycle, which outlines the steps what needs to be managed and completed to ensure success. Both the logic pyramid and the management cycle are executed by the considerations contained in the life-cycle method which provides the full scope methodology to ensure all considerations are made for each of the steps and activities previously outlined. As these management methods and processes are executed, critical factors are identified and can then be stratified into critical success factors, which can be analyzed to identify breakthrough goals and objectives which allow the management team to prioritize activities which provide the greatest return on investment or increased National Security. When this is completed coordinating with executives and staff related to those breakthrough goals and objectives can then be made to realize the synergies of effort in that capabilities and capacities necessary to meet the future security and economic needs of the UAE.

This Linking or interconnecting methodology is a management method to ensure that the program remains focus, streamlined, and effective throughout its life cycle. Additionally, it provides a common understanding and template, to which all parties associated with the strategic initiative can be familiar, resulting in much more effective and timely communication with all parties involved. It provides the unifying road-map which helps people remain focused on the ultimate goal and objective of securing UAE Security through the industrial base, and its ability to meet the needs of the armed forces.

In summary, the concept of creating a national industrial base strategy with the purpose of infusing industrial capabilities into the manufacture of goods and services to meet military requirements within the UAE industrial base is sound. Creating the ability to be self-sufficient in providing for the security of the nation is a major risk reducing strategy. However, the execution of the concept is very complex with a myriad of interrelated and competing interests and activities; involving a diverse population of both military and civilian’s, governments, corporations, associations, industries and philosophies. Therefore, success will require strong leadership, excellent vision, tenacity, excellent planning and management and most of all a structured system that has the necessary authority, responsibility and ability to affect the necessary changes required to implement a UAE military/civilian industrial based national strategy.

Industrial Computer Enclosures – Frequently Asked Questions Answered

1. Industrial Computer Enclosures and Industrial PCs, What’s the Difference?

In theory, nothing. They’re both designed to protect your equipment in hostile environments and they conform to the IP (ingress protection) rating system, as defined by the European Committee for Electro Technical Standardisation (CENELEC).

In practice, it’s the way that they protect that’s different. Industrial PCs are ‘all-in-one’ systems, everything is built into one unit, whereas industrial computer enclosures are separate to your equipment. They offer greater flexibility and save you time and money.

2. Why Bother Protecting my Factory’s PCs? I can just Replace them if they get Damaged

It’s true, you can. However, let’s look at how this could affect your company, hypothetically speaking. Let’s say you have 10 PCs in use on the factory floor and within 12 months five of them become damaged beyond repair due to exposure to dust, dirt, temperature fluctuations and liquids.

Assuming that the cost to replace each PC is £300, your bottom line takes a hit of £1500. That’s bad enough, right? However, there’s a more fundamental problem, which is often an oversight for many businesses.

Yes, a PC can be replaced, but what can’t be undone is production downtime. If you’re using PCs on the factory floor it’s obviously vital to your business operations.

What we’re stressing here is that it stops becoming about the cost to replace PCs, but becomes about the cost of PC downtime. Ultimately, the time it takes to repair a broken-down industrial PC is the opportunity cost of lost production and a lower manufacturing output.

How would your facility cope with 24 hours out of action? In reality, that’s how long it could take to get a PC repaired or replaced.

Then there’s data loss. The PC that has just failed holds information valuable to business, if it’s not backed up, it’s lost and irreplaceable.

Ultimately, industrial computer enclosures prolong the usable life of your equipment, reducing breakdowns, preventing downtime and giving you a lower total cost of ownership.

‘In gruelling environments a computer enclosure is the first and last line of defence for your equipment.’

3. Why can’t I just Build my Own Industrial Computer Enclosures?

You can, but it will cost you more. Once you’ve paid for the specialist materials and tools needed, factored in the labour costs and the time it takes to design and develop a unit to your satisfaction, plus the IP certification costs, producing your own doesn’t make commercial sense.

Assigning your time, and the time of your staff, to building an enclosure is time that is lost on your business. You wouldn’t spend time building the other heavy duty equipment you use, would you?

4. Will the Warranty of my Equipment be Affected by Using Industrial Computer Enclosures?

No. However, using a commercial grade PC in an environment where it’s deemed unfit for purpose, might not be covered by your warranty.

5. Are Industrial Computer Enclosures Or Industrial PCs More Secure?

With industrial PCs, they’re built to withstand manufacturing environments, with no need for a protective enclosure, which does leave it exposed to potential tampering or theft.

An industrial computer enclosure is separate to your equipment and are lockable, restricting access to authorised personnel only, reducing the possibility of theft or tampering.

6. Which is Easier to Maintain, Equipment in an Enclosure or an Industrial PC?

Without doubt, equipment in an enclosure. If something goes wrong with any of the systems encased in an enclosure, you can deal with any malfunctions on the spot. In contrast, industrial PCs are specialist pieces of kit and in most cases often require repair by the manufacturer.

This means you could face a significant period of downtime waiting for an engineer to come out and rectify a problem.

Additionally, because they’re sealed units, industrial PCs are often proprietary and difficult to upgrade.

7. What’s Easier to Install, an Enclosure or an Industrial PC?

Enclosures! In most cases they come fully assembled. Simply position as required, put your equipment in, power up and you’re all set. There’s no need to replace any of your hardware and downtime is minimal.

Installing industrial PCs means a complete overhaul of your system. Your current equipment, presuming you’re using commercial grade equipment, is rendered useless. There’s so much to factor in including:

· Cost

· Potential downtime

· Data transferring

· Training staff

Switching to industrial PCs gives you more to think about and when all is said and done, the cost and convenience of installing an enclosure might be more appealing.

8. Why Shouldn’t I Opt for an Industrial PC?

There are many reasons, but there are a couple of reasons why many businesses choose industrial computer enclosures and here are a couple of factors:

‘Desktop PCs are preferable to industrial computers because they cost less, offer greater flexibility, are easier to purchase and maintain, plus they simplify IT strategies on the factory floor. Having enclosures means current equipment can be utilised.’

The problem with industrial computers is that if they breakdown beyond repair, the whole unit has to be replaced, costing more. When a standard PC requires replacing, the same enclosure can be used to protect the new one.

Textile Industry in India

Current Status

The textile industry holds significant status in the India. Textile industry provides one of the most fundamental necessities of the people. It is an independent industry, from the basic requirement of raw materials to the final products, with huge value-addition at every stage of processing.

Today textile sector accounts for nearly 14% of the total industrial output. Indian fabric is in demand with its ethnic, earthly colored and many textures. The textile sector accounts about 30% in the total export. This conveys that it holds potential if one is ready to innovate.

The textile industry is the largest industry in terms of employment economy, expected to generate 12 million new jobs by 2010. It generates massive potential for employment in the sectors from agricultural to industrial. Employment opportunities are created when cotton is cultivated. It does not need any exclusive Government support even at present to go further. Only thing needed is to give some directions to organize people to get enough share of the profit to spearhead development.


Textile industry is constituted of the following segments

o Readymade Garments

o Cotton Textiles including Handlooms (Millmade / Powerloom/ Handloom)

o Man-made Textiles

o Silk Textiles

o Woollen Textiles

o Handicrafts including Carpets

o Coir

o Jute

The cottage industry with handlooms, with the cheapest of threads, produces average dress material, which costs only about 200 INR featuring fine floral and other patterns. It is not necessary to add any design to it. The women of the house spin the thread, and weave a piece in about a week.

It is an established fact that small and irregular apparel production can be profitable by providing affordable casual wear and leisure garments varieties.

Now, one may ask, where from the economy and the large profit comes in if the lowest end of the chain does not get paid with minimum per day labour charge. It is an irony of course. What people at the upper stratum of the chain do is, to apply this fabric into a design with some imagination and earn in millions. The straight 6 yards simple saree, drape in with a blouse with embroideries and bead work, then it becomes a designer¡¦s ensemble. For an average person, it can be a slant cut while giving it a shape, which can double the profit. Maybe, the 30 % credit that the industry is taking for its contribution to Indian economy as good as 60 % this way. Though it is an industry, it has to innovate to prosper. It has all the ingredients to go ahead.

Current Scenario

Textile exports are targeted to reach $50 billion by 2010, $25 billion of which will go to the US. Other markets include UAE, UK, Germany, France, Italy, Russia, Canada, Bangladesh and Japan. The name of these countries with their background can give thousands of insights to a thinking mind. The slant cut that will be producing a readymade garment will sell at a price of 600 Indian rupees, making the value addition to be profitable by 300 %.

Currently, because of the lifting up of the import restrictions of the multi-fibre arrangement (MFA) since 1st January, 2005 under the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Textiles and Clothing, the market has become competitive; on closer look however, it sounds an opportunity because better material will be possible with the traditional inputs so far available with the Indian market.

At present, the textile industry is undergoing a substantial re-orientation towards other then clothing segments of textile sector, which is commonly called as technical textiles. It is moving vertically with an average growing rate of nearly two times of textiles for clothing applications and now account for more than half of the total textile output. The processes in making technical textiles require costly machinery and skilled workers.

The application that comes under technical textiles are filtration, bed sheets and abrasive materials, healthcare upholstery and furniture, blood-absorbing materials and thermal protection, adhesive tape, seatbelts, and other specialized application and products.


. India enjoys benefit of having plentiful resources of raw materials. It is one of the largest producers of cotton yarn around the globe, and also there are good resources of fibres like polyester, silk, viscose etc…

. There is wide range of cotton fibre available, and has a rapidly developing synthetic fibre industry.

. India has great competitiveness in spinning sector and has presence in almost all processes of the value chain.

. Availability of highly trained manpower in both, management and technical. The country has a huge advantage due to lower wage rates. Because of low labor rates the manufacturing cost in textile automatically comes down to very reasonable rates.

. The installed capacity of spindles in India contributes for 24% share of the world, and it is one of the biggest exporters of yarns in the global market. Having modern functions and favorable fiscal policies, it accounts about 25% of the world trade in cotton yarn.

. The apparel industry is largest foreign exchange earning sector, contributing 12% of the country’s total exports.

. The garment industry is very diverse in size, manufacturing facility, type of apparel produced, quantity and quality of output, cost, requirement for fabric etc. It comprises suppliers of ready-made garments for both, domestic or export markets.


Massive Fragmentation:

A major loop-hole in Indian textile industry is its huge fragmentation in industry structure, which is led by small scale companies. Despite the government policies, which made this deformation, have been gradually removed now, but their impact will be seen for some time more. Since most of the companies are small in size, the examples of industry leadership are very few, which can be inspirational model for the rest of the industry.

The industry veterans portrays the present productivity of factories at half to as low as one-third of levels, which might be attained. In many cases, smaller companies do not have the fiscal resources to enhance technology or invest in the high-end engineering of processes. The skilled labor is cheap in absolute terms; however, most of this benefit is lost by small companies.

The uneven supply base also leads barriers in attaining integration between the links in supply chain. This issue creates uncontrollable, unreliable and inconsistent performance.

Political and Government Diversity:
The reservation of production for very small companies that was imposed with an intention to help out small scale companies across the country, led substantial fragmentation that distorted the competitiveness of industry. However, most of the sectors now have been de-reserved, and major entrepreneurs and corporate are putting-in huge amount of money in establishing big facilities or in expansion of their existing plants.

Secondly, the foreign investment was kept out of textile and apparel production. Now, the Government has gradually eliminated these restrictions, by bringing down import duties on capital equipment, offering foreign investors to set up manufacturing facilities in India. In recent years, India has provided a global manufacturing platform to other multi-national companies that manufactures other than textile products; it can certainly provide a base for textiles and apparel companies.

Despite some motivating step taken by the government, other problems still sustains like various taxes and excise imbalances due to diversification into 35 states and Union Territories. However, an outline of VAT is being implemented in place of all other tax diversifications, which will clear these imbalances once it is imposed fully.

Labour Laws:
In India, labour laws are still found to be relatively unfavorable to the trades, with companies having not more than ideal model to follow a ‘hire and fire’ policy. Even the companies have often broken their business down into small units to avoid any trouble created by labour unionization.

In past few years, there has been movement gradually towards reforming labour laws, and it is anticipated that this movement will uphold the environment more favorable.
Distant Geographic Location:
There are some high-level disadvantages for India due to its geographic location. For the foreign companies, it has a global logistics disadvantage due the shipping cost is higher and also takes much more time comparing to some other manufacturing countries like Mexico, Turkey, China etc. The inbound freight traffic has been also low, which affects cost of shipping – though, movement of containers are not at reasonable costs.

Lack of trade memberships:
India is serious lacking in trade pact memberships, which leads to restricted access to the other major markets. This issue made others to impose quota and duty, which put scissors on the sourcing quantities from India.


It is anticipated that India’s textile industry is likely to do much better. Since the consumption of domestic fibre is low, the growth in domestic consumption in tandem is anticipated with GDP of 6 to 8 % and this would support the growth of the local textile market at about 6 to 7 % a year.

India can also grab opportunities in the export market. The industry has the potential of attaining $34bn export earnings by the year 2010. The regulatory polices is helping out to enhance infrastructures of apparel parks, Specialized textile parks, EPZs and EOUs.

The Government support has ensured fast consumption of clothing as well as of fibre. A single rate will now be prevalent throughout the country.

The Indian manufacturers and suppliers are improving design skills, which include different fabrics according to different markets. Indian fashion industry and fashion designers are marking their name at international platform. Indian silk industry that is known for its fine and exclusive brocades, is also adding massive strength to the textile industry.

The industry is being modernized via an exclusive scheme, which has set aside $5bn for investment in improvisation of machinery. International brands, such as Levis, Wal-Mart, JC Penny, Gap, Marks & Spencer and other industry giants are sourcing more and more fabrics and garments from India. Alone Wal-Mart had purchased products worth $200mn last year and plans to increase buying up to $3bn in the coming year. The clothing giant from Europe, GAP is also sourcing from India.

As a result of various initiatives taken by the government, there has been new investment of Rs.50,000 crore in the textile industry in the last five years. Nine textile majors invested Rs.2,600 crore and plan to invest another Rs.6,400 crore. Further, India’s cotton production increased by 57% over the last five years; and 3 million additional spindles and 30,000 shuttle-less looms were installed.

Forecast till 2010 for textiles by the government along with the industry and Export Promotion Councils is to attain double the GDP, and the export is likely attain $85bn. The industry is anticipated to generate 12mn new jobs in various sectors.

How to uphold textile Industry

Weak infrastructure may be a hindrance which can be overcome with better network and with the willingness to share profit by loyalty bottom up and patronization from above downwards.

. By putting more retail outlets,

. With better value added products,

. By taking the lowest end of the chain into confidence and building their capability to innovate more and more.

. By upholding the market knowledge at every level that happens at higher-end that lifts the chain.

. By building on the expertise for technical textiles that include bed sheets; filtration and abrasive materials; furniture and healthcare upholstery; thermal protection and blood-absorbing materials; seatbelts; adhesive tape, etc which need skilled workers who are not easy to find in an Indian market.

. By keeping a regular research and development department with regards to the industry

. By building up the peripheral market with regular update of new accessories.

. By integrating the disorganized sectors into one segment that is functionally independent of each other’s unwanted stranglehold

. By putting affiliated efforts into the sector

. By creating a state owned cargo-shipping mechanism : with rationalizing fiscal duties; upgrading technology through the Technology Up-gradation Fund Scheme (TUFS);

. By setting up of Apparel Parks

. By clearing off bottlenecks in the form of regulatory practices

. By replacing the indirect taxes with a single nationwide VAT

. With liberalization of contract norms for textile and garments units

. By controlling export of raw materials

. By curtailing the drawback claims falsely boosted invoice value of exports

. By effectively installing a price discovery mechanism to track market trend to take effective measures before hand a slump

How to promote textile exports

For promotion of exports the measures which should be taken up are

. Up gradation of textiles sector

. Policy level decision to achieve export target

. Woven segment of readymade garment sector and knitwear have been de-reserved

. Technology Up-gradation Fund Scheme to be pursued till next five years

. Liberalization of FDI Policy with up to 100 per cent foreign equity participation

. Import of capital goods at 5% concession rate of duty with appropriate export obligation under

Export Promotion Capital Goods (EPCG) Scheme and clearly laid out EXIM policy

. Advance Licensing Scheme with standard input-output norms

. Prescribed Duty Exemption Pass Book (DEPB) Scheme credit rates

. Duty Drawback Scheme wherein the exporters are allowed refund of the excise and import duty loss on raw materials

. Construction of Apparel International Mart by Apparel Export Promotion Council to provide a world class facility to the apparel exporters to exhibit products and built international reputation

. Setting up of quality checking laboratories

. Apparel Park for Exports Scheme to invite international production units along with in-house production floors.